Manuals

  • Boulanger, R. W., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2017). “PM4Sand (version 3.1): A sand plasticity model for earthquake engineering applications.”  Report No. UCD/CGM-17/01, Center for Geotechnical Modeling, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, March, 112 pp. (Boulanger_Ziotopoulou_PM4Sand_v31_CGM-17-01_2017.pdf)
  • Boulanger, R. W., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2015). “PM4Sand (version 3): A sand plasticity model for earthquake engineering applications.”  Report No. UCD/CGM-15/01, Center for Geotechnical Modeling, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, March, 112 pp. (Boulanger_Ziotopoulou_PM4Sand_Model_CGM-15-01_2015)
  • Boulanger, R. W., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2012). “PM4Sand (version 2): A sand plasticity model for earthquake engineering applications.”  Report No. UCD/CGM-12/01, Center for Geotechnical Modeling, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, May, 100 pp. (Revision 1 posted July 2012 – Boulanger_Ziotopoulou_Sand_Model_CGM-12-01_2012_rev1)
  • Boulanger, R. W. (2010). “A sand plasticity model for earthquake engineering applications.” Report No. UCD/CGM-10/01, Center for Geotechnical Modeling, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, 77 pp.

Theory and Implementation

  • Ziotopoulou , K., and Boulanger, R. W. (2016). “Plasticity modeling of liquefaction effects under sloping ground and irregular cyclic loading conditions.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 84 (2016), 269-283, 10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.02.013.
  • Ziotopoulou, K., and Boulanger, R. W. (2013). “Calibration and implementation of a sand plasticity plane-strain model for earthquake engineering applications.” Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 53, 268-280, 10.1016/j.soildyn.2013.07.009.
  • Boulanger, R. W., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2013). “Formulation of a sand plasticity plane-strain model for earthquake engineering applications.” Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Elsevier, 53, 254-267, 10.1016/j.soildyn.2013.07.006.

Calibration procedures and modeling issues

  • Boulanger, R. W., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2018). “On NDA practices for evaluating liquefaction effects.” Proc., Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics V, Geotechnical Special Publication 290, S. J. Brandenberg and M. T. Manzari, eds., ASCE, 1-20.
  • Boulanger, R. W., and Beaty, M. H. (2016). “Seismic deformation analyses of embankment dams: A reviewer’s checklist.” Proceedings , Celebrating the Value of Dams and Levees – Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, United States Society on Dams, Denver, CO, 535-546.
  • Ziotopoulou, K., and Boulanger, R. W. (2015). “Validation protocols for constitutive modeling of liquefaction.” 6th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, November 1 4, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • Ziotopoulou, K., Maharjan, M., Boulanger, R. W., Beaty, M. H., Armstrong, R. J., and Takahashi, A. (2014). “Constitutive modeling of liquefaction effects in sloping ground.” Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering, July 21-25, Anchorage Alaska.
  • Ziotopoulou, K., and Boulanger, R. W. (2013). “Numerical modeling issues in predicting post-liquefaction reconsolidation strains and settlements.” 10th International Conference on Urban Earthquake Engineering, March 1-2, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 469-475.
  • Ziotopoulou, K., and Boulanger, R. W. (2012). “Constitutive modeling of duration and overburden effects in liquefaction evaluations.” 2nd International Conference on Performance-Based Design in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, ISSMGE, Taormina, Italy, May 28-30, paper no. 03.10, 467-482.

Analyses of physical models or case histories

  • Boulanger, R. W., Munter, S. K., Krage, C. P., and DeJong, J. T. (2019). “Liquefaction evaluation of interbedded soil deposit: Çark Canal in 1999 M7.5 Kocaeli Earthquake.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 145(9): 05019007,  /10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0002089.
  • Boulanger, R. W., Khosravi, M., Khosravi, A., and Wilson, D. W. (2018). “Remediation of liquefaction effects for an embankment using soil-cement walls: Centrifuge and numerical modeling.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 114(2018), 38-50, 10.1016/j.soildyn.2018.07.001
  • Bray, J. D., and Luque, R. (2017). “Seismic performance of a building affected by moderate liquefaction during the Christchurch earthquake.” Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Elsevier, 102, 99-111, 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.08.011.
  • Boulanger, R. W., Khosravi, M., Khosravi, A., and Wilson, D. W. (2017). “Remediation of liquefaction effects for an embankment using soil-cement walls: Centrifuge and numerical modeling.” Proc., Performance-based Design in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, PBD-III Vancouver, M. Taiebat et al., eds., ISSMGE Technical Committee TC203, paper 537.
  • Montgomery, J., Boulanger, R. W., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2017). “Effects of spatial variability on the seismic response of the Wildlife Liquefaction Array.” Proc., Performance-based Design in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, PBD-III Vancouver, M. Taiebat et al., eds., ISSMGE Technical Committee TC203, paper 533.
  • Ziotopoulou, K. (2017). “Seismic response of liquefiable sloping ground: Class A and C numerical predictions of centrifuge model responses.” Special issue of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.01.038.
  • Luque, R., and Bray, J. D. (2017). “Dynamic analyses of two buildings founded on liquefiable soils during the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 2017, 143(9): 04017067.
  • Armstrong, R. J., and Boulanger, R. W. (2015). “Numerical simulations of liquefaction effects on piled bridge abutments.” 6th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, November 1 4, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • Boulanger, R. W., Kamai, R., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2013). “Simulation of liquefaction-induced void redistribution in a centrifuge test.” 10th International Conference on Urban Earthquake Engineering, March 1-2, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 301-305.
  • Kamai, R., and Boulanger, R. W. (2013). “Simulations of a centrifuge test with lateral spreading and void redistribution effects.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 139(8), 1250-1261.
  • Ziotopoulou, K., Boulanger, R. W., and Kramer, S. L. (2012). “Site response analyses of liquefying sites.” Geo-Congress 2012: State of the Art and Practice in Geotechnical Engineering, R. D. Hyrciw, A. Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, and N. Yesiller, eds., Geotechnical Special Publication No. 225, ASCE Geo-Institute, 1799-1808.

Other applications

  • Boulanger, R. W., and Montgomery, J. (2016). “Nonlinear deformation analyses of an embankment dam on a spatially variable liquefiable deposit.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 91(2016), 222-233, 10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.07.027.
  • Montgomery, J., and Boulanger, R. W. (2016). “Effects of spatial variability on liquefaction-induced settlement and lateral spreading.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 143(1), 04016086, 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001584.
  • Boulanger, R. W., Montgomery, J., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2015). “Nonlinear deformation analyses of liquefaction effects on embankment dams.” Perspectives on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, A. Ansal and M. Sakr, eds., Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering 37, 247-283, Springer, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-10786-8_10.
  • Boulanger, R. W., Kamai, R., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2014). “Liquefaction induced strength loss and deformation: Simulation and design.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Springer, 12: 1107-1128, 10.1007/s10518-013-9549-x.
  • Boulanger, R. W., Kamai, R., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2011). “Numerical modeling of liquefaction effects.” Proc., Effects of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion, 4th IASPEI / IAEE International Symposium, August 23-26, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA.